During World War I, the Jordanian tribes as part of the Arab Army of the Great Arab Revolt, fought against the Ottoman Empire. It was supported by the Allies of World War I, and successfully liberated most of the territories of the Ottomans including the region of east of Jordan.
in 1915, and the Emirate of Transjordan was created under the Hashemites reign, In September 1922, recognized Transjordan as a state under the British Mandate, and remained under British supervision until 1946.
Nations approved the end of the British Mandate and recognized Jordan as an independent sovereign kingdom, and Jordan became the independent Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan on May 25th 1946.
On July 20th1951, King Abdullah was assassinated in Jerusalem while praying. King Talal succeeded to the throne a few months.
In 1952, King Hussein succeeded on abdication of King Talal. During his reign of 47 years, King Hussein established the modern Jordan, he died on February 7, 1999 after a long suffer of Cancer, and succeeded by King Abdallah II.
Ancient History of Jordan
The first evidence of Hunter-gatherer society, discovered at Wadi Madamagh near Petra, with many tools used by hunters for hunting large mammals and smaller creatures.
Paleolithic Era: 200,000 BC – 8000 BC
Paleolithic Age is the Old Stone Age, and Mesolithic Period is the Middle Stone Age represents a new phase of culture, characterized by the beginning of settled life. Hunters activity using flint hand axes, knives all over Jordan from north to south, extensively in Aqaba, Ma'an, Wadi Arabah, Jafer and Jerash in the south, Kharranah and Azraq east of Amman
Neolithic Period: 8000 BC – 4500 BC
this period, evidence of villages and pottery found in Jericho, and areas of the Jordan River Valley such as Tell Ish-Shuneh, Tel Abu Habil, Ghrubba and villages such as Beidah near Petra, Ain Ghazal and Basta Wadi Yarmuk.
Chalcolithic Era:4500 BC – 3300 BC
Metal objects is used by man during this era, exploration indicates Chalcolithic sites in Jordan, beside using flint tools, Chalcolithic settlements found in Jordan like Tuleilat al Ghussul, north-east of the Dead Sea, built houses discovered at this site and other sites in on the hills east of Jerash, around Irbid, and near Hesban and Ma'an.
Early Bronze Age: 3300 BC – 2100 BC
A series of fortified towns representing the Early Bronze Age found along the edge of the southern Jordan Valley, south and east of the Dead Sea.
Other remains, back to the intermediate period between the early Bronze Age and the Middle Bronze Age period, are found in Ader, Khirbet Iskandar, Tell Iktanu, Husn, Amman, and Bad ed-Dhra', Burials and extensive cemeteries with archeological material was uncovered in Amman, Naur, Mount Nebo, Tell Safut, Midayineh, and Jalul, near Madaba.
Middle Bronze Age: 2100 BC – 1500 BC
The Middle Bronze Age was an important period in Jordan, with the appearance of Strong fortified towns and villages. This period witnessed a new culture with an entirely new type of pottery and bronze weapons.
Late Bronze Age: 1500 BC – 1200 BC
At this late Bronze Age, Excavations at Irbid, Tabaqat Fahl, Amman, Sahab, Madaba, Wadi Abu Al Naml, Jalul, and other sites south, show that Jordan continued to flourish during this period, and with the improved economic conditions by trade with Egypt, Cyprus and Greece.
Iron Age: 1200 BC – 550 BC
The Early Iron Age is the age of the native Arab kingdoms of the Edomites, Moabites, Ammonites, and Gileadites, Jordan became massively settled during this age.
Persian Period: 594 BC – 331 BC
Only little information regarding Jordan's history during the Persian period show that it was part and one the provinces of Palestine.
Hellenistic Period: 311 BC – 63 BC
During this period Jordan was heavily Hellenized, due to its location along the caravan route from Damascus to Aqaba, and Greek took control of the whole area.
Nabatean Era: 312 BC – 112 AD
During this era, Jordan was part of the Nabateans kingdom, with Petra as the capital, and it was the meeting center of the trade routes form Gulf east, Western Arabia, and the Red Sea.
Roman Period: 63 BC – 330 AD
Romans came to Syria and marched on to Jordan, and declared that all Greek cities free in northern Jordan and given a considerable amount of autonomy. Among these cities were Philadelphia (Amman), Gadara (Um-Qais), Pella (Tabqat Fahl), Abila (Qweilbeh) and Gerasa (Jerash), along with other cities in Syria known as the Decapolis, or the League of Ten Cities.
Byzantine Period: 330 AD – 640 AD
Jordan's population increased under the Byzantine Empire, and was apparently prosperous. Byzantine archeological remains, towns and the Christian churches found throughout Jordan, mosaic pavements in Madaba and Jerash are the most impressive.
Islamic Conquest: 640 AD – 1099 AD
Was the first clash between the Arabs and the Byzantines, and at Motah, south of Kerak. the battle of Yarmuk took place near Um-Qais (Gadara), In 630 AD, and the Ummayad caliphs marched onto Damascus and established their capital, Amman is controlled by the Ummayads who built several palaces and hunting lodges in the Jordanian desert.
Ayyubid Period: 1174 AD – 1263 AD
Example of Muslim military architecture in Jordan during the Ayyoubid period like Rabadh Castle in Ajlun, and another Islamic castle found at Azraq, built in this period by Muslim leaders.
Mamluk Period: 1263 AD – 1516 AD
One of the successors of Azzahir Baibars, drove out the Crusaders from the country in 1290 AD, and Jordan witnessed great advancements in architecture and agriculture throughout the Mamluk Period but Jordan lost its strategic importance.
Ottoman Period: 1516 AD – 1918 AD
In 1851, during the Ottoman Period., the district of Ajlun) was the first to come under the Ottoman administration, the second area to come under ottoman authority was the central district of Belqa, in 1868. The town of Salt became the seat of the governor. The southern area, Kerak and Ma'an, later it became a district under the Wilayat of Syria and enlarged to include Ma'an, Salt, Tebuk, and Madain Saleh.
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