Christian heritage of Jordan during the time of Jesus and the Apostles includes sites and locations for some of the dramatic miracles defined by episodes of the Bible and Byzantine medieval texts
Amman, Rabat Ammon;
Biblical name Rabbath Ammon with many biblical references as it was the capital of the Ammonite around the year 1200 BC. Amman also was named Philadelphia by the time of the Ptolemy II Philadelphus the Macedonian ruler of Egypt.
The city was the seat of a Christian bishop during the Byzantine period when Christianity became the official religion of the Eastern Roman Empire, many churches were constructed, and one is located at Amman Citadel.
Amman now is the Capital of the Hashemite Kingdome of Jordan.
Anjara, Church of the Lady of the Mountain;
The cave mentioned in the Bible where Jesus passed through and rested with his mother Mary and his disciples during their journeys, the cave was renovated and built as a church and now called the Lady of the Mountain shrine / Church.
It is considered one of the five pilgrimage sites that designated by the Catholic Churches of the Middle East in Jordan the other four sites are Bethany beyond the Jordan, Mount Nebo, Tell Mar Elias near Ajloun and Machaerus.
It is located at Anjara, near Ajloun.
The site in southern Jordan mentioned in the Exodus and the biblical history. It has a religious role at the time of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, also at the Chronic Wars between the kings of Judah and Edom.
King Solomon built a fleet of ships at Aqaba and the adjacent Biblical Ezion Geber. Aqaba is the site of what is believed to be the world's oldest known purpose built church with an adjacent Byzantine cemetery.
Aqaba is located at the Red Sea 330 km South of Amman.
Baptism site and Jabal Mar Elias;
The Hill of Wadi Al Kharrar (Saphsaphas) is the site of John the Baptist's settlement at Bethany beyond the Jordan River where the Prophet Elijah ascended into heaven.
The sanctuary has long been known from the Bible and Byzantine texts, where John lived and baptized, which were inhabited from the time of Christ and John the Baptist.
The sanctuary was visited regularly by pilgrims along with the baptism site itself, the place that Jesus is first reported to have prayed to God.
Deir Ain Abata and Lot's Cave;
The Valley of Salt (Gore Al Safi) as known in the Bible, where Abraham and Lot divided their herds and people after the journey from Egypt. It is the location of the cave.
The cave where Lot and his family sought refuge from the devastation of Sodom and Gomorrah, the location of the monastery and the sanctuary of Lot along with Lot’s wife salt pillar near Deir Ain Abata.
Situated about two kilometers north of the town of Safi, on the hill overlooking the Dead Sea.
Old Testament mentioned Hisban as the capital of Amorite, one of the Cities of the Plain, and also mentioned during the time of the Exodus under Moses. The city later came under Moabite control, was mentioned by the Song of King Solomon not particularly by name, refers to the pools of Hisban, the Prophets mention it in their denunciations of Moab.
Esbus was also an important early Christian station on the pilgrim’s route through the Jordan River from Jerusalem to Bethany and Mount Nebo.
Hisban is Located north of Madaba.
Jerash was noted in the Bible as the “region of the Garasenes, and was named Gerasa at the Decapolis time. There are two main church complexes at town with magnificent Mosaics flour and a fountain with a Court where Byzantines used to annually celebrate the miracle of Jesus turning water into wine.
A Graeco Roman city that was first developed at the 4th CB under Alexander the Great and became the destination for modern pilgrims until present days.
Jerash is located within the mountains of Gilead North of Amman.
Karak, Kir Heres;
The city was the ancient capital of Moab and a fortress since biblical times as mentioned by the Old Testament as Kir Heres and mentioned in the bible at the time of Assyrian empire as Qer Harreseth. At the time of the Byzantine Empire it was a bishopric seat.
The town of Karak has so many names throughout the history and under control by the Greeks, the Nabatean, Romans, Crusaders and Muslims. And the town is represented on two church mosaics at Madaba and Umm Al-Rasas.
Karak is located 124 km south of Amman.
The ancient fortress of Machaerus, Biblical meaning the Black Fortress, was not mentioned in Scripture, canonical or apocryphal. It is related to the story of Salome, who danced for Herod Antipas, at his famous birthday party at Machaerus where John the Baptist was imprisoned and executed in 32 AD.
Arabic name Qal`at Al-Mishnaqa, 15 km east and overlooking the Dead Sea was first fortified in 80 B.C. by Alexander Janneus and then successively refortified, Herod the Great restored it and became the strong hold of his sun Antipas.
The site is located 19 km southwest of Madaba.
The town is repeatedly mentioned in the Old Testament as a biblical Moabite town by the name of Medeba along with its surroundings, and at the time of the Exodus and Moses. It became the seat of a bishopric during the Byzantines.
The earliest ancient religious mosaic map is found in Madaba at the Orthodox Church of Saint George, dated to the 6th century AD, the map of Jerusalem and the earliest original map of the Holy Land and its surrounding regions, that survive from ancient times. Several church floor mosaics in their original locations are also found in area.
Madaba, located 30 kilometers southwest of Amman.
Mount Nebo, Jabal Siyagha;
The place that mentioned in the Bible as the place where Moses went up from the plains of Moab and was granted a view of the Promised Land, and the place where he died and buried. It is also the center for pilgrimages since earliest Christian times.
A monastery with a church was uncovered on the highest point of the mountain in the 2nd half of the 4th century to commemorate the place where Moses death and burial place. During the late Byzantine period a large monastic complex was grown with church was built on the site with mosaics which was destroyed earthquake in AD 749.
The Memorial of Moses is located 10 km west of Madaba.
Mount Hur, Jabal Haroun;
This is the mountain mentioned in the bible, where Aaron (Haroun in Arabic) brother of Moses died and buried. Near by is the place where Moses struck the rock and brought forth water is called (Wadi Musa in Arabic), the valley of Moses.
Petra is located in between, but it is not specifically mentioned in the Bible by name, it was the capital of the Nabataeans during the time of Moses and the exodus and Mount Hor was controlled by them, era and was used as a pilgrimage station during the Byzantine times.
Mount Hur is located at Petra.
Arabic name Tabaqat Fahl, although the Bible makes no reference to Pella by name but both Old and New Testaments of the Bible refers to it as the place where Jacob made the first prayer in the which a human being asks God for personal protection.
Pella provided a refuge for Christians fleeing the Roman destruction of Jerusalem around the year 67 A.D. it contains some of the world’s earliest camp sites, the best preserved temple from Old Testament times anywhere in the Holy Land is discovered in site.
Pella is located at the Jordan Valley 78 km north of Amman.
Saltus, El Salt;
Was known as Saltos Hieraticon during the Byzantine period, mainly related to earliest figures that mentioned in the Bible, Prophet Job, prophet Jethro, who was the father-in-law of Moses, also Jad and Asher, who were both sons of Jacob, they all have shrines in the area.
It was the also the seat of a bishopric during the Byzantine times, for long periods in history, it was the most important settled town between the Jordan River and the desert of Arabia to the south and east.
El Salt is located 23 north west of Amman.
Tal Mar Elias;
Jabal or Tell Mar Elias and the ancient ruins of a village known as Listib which is associated with the Biblical town of Tishbe the hometown and the birth place of Profit Elijah.
A long the twin sites of the Listeb and Tel Mar Elias is the ancient pilgrimage site of Barreya (Perea in Arabic) the Holy place visited by Moses, Elijah, John the Baptist and Jesus Christ at different periods. Two churches were built on top of the hill (Tal in Arabic) at the end of the Byzantine period one of them are largest Byzantine churches in Jordan with series of tombs beneath.
Located 80 kilometers northwest of Amman.
Umm Ar Rasas, Mephaath, Kastron Mefaa;
The city was mentioned on both the Old and New Testaments of the Bible. The site has the finestByzantine church with perfectly preserved outstanding mosaics in Jordan the Middle East.
Church of Saint Stephen forms part of a large monastic complex that is built outside the city walls of Umm Ar Rasas, with mosaic floor depicting images of 27Old and New biblical cities in Palestine and Jordan.
Umm Ar Rasas is located 30 km to the southeast of Madaba.
Umm Qais, Gedara;
This is the place where Jesus taught the people about the Kingdom of God and performed his miracles including the miracle of the Gadarene swine.
Among the site is Ancient Graeco Roman ruins of a church above a Roman-Byzantine tomb with five-aisled basilica built to commemorate the spot where theybelieve that Jesus performed His miracle that was mentioned in the Bible, the place where Jesus cast out the devil from two men into a herd of pigs.
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