The demands for Scents and Incense and other luxury goods, beside the cultural, Artistic and Religious, exchanges between the empires of antiquity lead to creating a network of routes between South Arabia to the Mediterranean, North Africa and Asia for more than 5,000 years and became one of the oldest trade centers of the ancient world
Many of these land routes ended at ports on the Red Sea at the Gulf of Aqaba and the Mediterranean eastern costs and countries and cities, crossing Jordan from North to South starting from the ancient Ayla port at Aqaba all the way to the north to Arabella connecting to Damascus serving as a channel from Egypt, South Arabia to India.
The Silk Road, Spice, Perfume and Incense Routes in Jordan.
The King's Highway;
An ancient route that existed for thousands of years indexing many sites of prehistoric villages, biblical towns, Crusader castles, Christian mosaics, Nabatean temples, Roman fortresses, Islamic towns and many of the archaeological sites along Jordan.
The original road was established nearly 5000 thousand years ago as part of the ancient network of trade and caravan routes that existed in Jordan, extending from north to South connecting Syria to Egypt.
The highway is also was an important pilgrimage route for Christians for It was the path followed by Moses from Mount Sinai to Mount Nebo, Muslims used it as the main Hajj route to Mecca from Syria until the Ottoman Turks built the the Hijaz Railway.
Incense is one of the first substances to be traded worldwide throughout recorded history. Along the ancient network of trade routes is the route that connects Egypt and the Persian Empire with Arabia, Oman and Yemen, were mostly controlled by the Arabs for more than 5000 years ago.
Since the time of King Solomon and during the 3rd century BCE, the incense was crucial to the economy of the four kingdoms of Yemen, and was the basis for the establishment and growing of great civilization including the Nabataeans who used to accommodate large caravans of Frankincense, Myrrh and other Incenses from Southern Arabia.
This also gave the Nabateans a hold over overland route from Petra to Palmyra, Damascus, and the Parthian Empire connecting Africa, India, and the Far East.
Perfume Route In Jordan;
Ancient Arabian merchants found markets among the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia and Assyria, buyers who paid high prices for body oils and aromatic incense used for ritual ceremonies.
They controlled the trade routes that stretched from the north east side of the Red Sea, up north to Petra, west through eastern Mediterranean, and to the north from Petra to Damascus.
The Nabateans played a central role in the marketing of perfume and controlled the trade with two other sea routes that both ultimately brought the perfume, spices and incense to Petra from the South of Arabia where some of the finest perfume plants were grown.
Silk Road in Jordan;
The Silk Road is the oldest trading route in the world which was a significant factor in the development of ancient civilizations of China during the Han Dynasty when it started as shipping route for silk as an international trade with India, Persia, Arabia and Europe.
The road forms a historical complex network of interlinking trade routes across the ancient world after periods of development with the Mediterranean and European countries linking Arabia and Egypt with the rest of Africa.
Petra and other cities played a role as a connecting bridge between ancient cities of the Silk Road where the Incense Trail and overland subsidiaries of the Spice Route once met until it was stopped serving as a shipping route for silk during the Ottoman Empire.
Spice Route In Jordan;
Spice Routes along the Indian commercial connection with South East Asia were one of the main vital routes and contacts between the various ancient civilizations and empires of the old world for centuries.
It is one of the long-distance trade routes that played a major role in making Arabia one of the oldest trade centers of the world, and it was a unique way of exchanging knowledge between the major centers of civilization in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Spice road were a vital route for commercial activity to the merchants of Arabia and Persia and others along the Levant cities which were transformed into major markets and caravansaries all over Jordan territories from north, Palmyra in Syria to Petra in south of Jordan.
Via Traiana Nova In Jordan;
An ancient Roman road built by the emperor Trajan as an extension to the Appian ancient military first long road built specifically to transport troops, the King's Highway was rebuilt and renovated by Trajan and used as part of the Via Traiana nova.
The road was completed by Emperor Hadrian, connecting Busra at Syria Passing through Philadelphia (modern Amman), Charachmoba (modern Karak) and Hauara (modern Hamayma) to Ayla (modern Aqaba) on the Gulf of Aqaba.
It was also an important route for Christian pilgrimage visiting the Baptism site and Mount Nebo in Jordan.
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