In 10050 BC, the first civilization on record is the the largest Neolithic settlements ever discovered in the Middle East, in Ain Ghazal, located in eastern Amman, showed evidence of settled life and the growth of artistic work, which suggests that a well-developed civilization inhabited the city during this Neolithic period
Even prior to the time of the Exodus, according to evidence that show fortified Walls at one of Amman's mountains (Jabal Al Qal'a), the Acropolis of Amman, dated back to the 17th Century B.C. also other ruins dated back to the 8th and the 7th Centuries B.C. of the Iron Age exists at sites on top of the mountain.
Rabat Amon: 313th century B.C the city was named Rabbath Ammon, or Rabat Amon and got its independence around mid-10th century B.C. and was the capital of the Ammonites.
733 B.C. the Kingdom of the Ammonites fell into the hands of the Assyrians.
6th century B.C. the Ammonites helped Nebuchadnezzar and the city was under the control of the Babylonian Empire.
539 B.C. the city was taken over by the Achaemenian of the Persians and was ruled by a local family.
Philadelphia: By the 4th century B.C. the city was under control by the Macedonian ruler of Egypt. 282 - 246 B.C. Ptolemy II Philadelphus changed the name of the city to Philadelphia
218 B.C. the city was conquered by the Seleucids, and Philadelphia became part of the Nabatean Kingdome in 198 B.C.E.
63 B.C. Philadelphia came under the control of the Romans, the roman general Pompey made Philadelphia part of the Decapolis League and rebuilt the city.
Philadelphia became part of the new Province of Arabia, and connected to other cities in the province via the 'Via Nova Traiana' road that linked Aqaba with Damascus.
In 326 A.D. During the Byzantine era, Christianity became the official religion of the Eastern Roman Empire, Philadelphia became the seat of Christian Bishop, churches were constructed, and one is located at Amman Citadel.
Ammon: By the early 7th century, Islam was already spreading northwards from the Arabian Peninsula and, by 635 A.D. the city returned to its original Semitic name of Ammon or Amman during the Ghassania era, and flourished under the Caliphates.
The city was destroyed by several earthquakes and natural disasters and remained a small village, its importance was overtaken by the rise of Karak during the Crusades and under the Mameluks of Egypt in the south, and it was ruined and reported as an ancient town even under the Ottoman Empire.
In 13th century A.D. Decline began and it was deserted until 1887, the Circassians established a settlement on the east bank of the Jordan River, they built rough roads linking their settlement to Amman.
Commerce, once again, began to flourish, with the construction of the Hejaz Railway linking Damascus with Medina in 1902. Once again, Amman became the centre of a busy trade route and its population began.
Amman the Capital: In 1921, King Abdulla I chose Amman instead of As-Salt as seat of government for his newly created state, the Emirate of Transjordan, and later as the capital of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.
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